Direct greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 1 (million/teq) (1)
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 2 (million/teq) purchase of electricity from the grid (location based) (2)
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 2 (million/teq) purchase of electricity from the grid (market based) (2)
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 2 (million/teq) distribution grid losses (location based) (1)
Indirect greenhouse gas emissions - Scope 3 (million/teq) (1)
of which emissions connected with gas sales (million/teq)
Specific emissions of CO2 from total generation (CO2g/kWheq) (3)
Specific emissions of SO2 (g/kWheq) (3)
Specific emissions of NOx (g/kWheq) (3)
Specific emissions of particulates (g/kWheq) (3)
Total direct fuel consumption (Mtoe)
Reference price of CO2 (€)
Average efficiency of thermal plants (%)(4)
Zero-emission generation (% of total)
EBITDA for low-carbon products, services and technologies (millions of €)
Capex for low-carbon products, services and technologies (millions of €)
Ratio of capex for low-carbon products, services and technologies to total (%)
Water withdrawal in water-stressed areas (%)
Specific water requirement for total generation (l/kWheq)
(1) The Scope values for 2018 have been modified by adding the new calculation categories introduced in 2019.
(2) Scope 2 emissions for electricity purchased from the grid have been recalculated to take account of an expansion of the calculation basis.
(3) Specific emissions are calculated considering total emissions from thermal generation as a ratio of total renewable, nuclear and thermal generation (including the contribution of heat).
(4) The calculation does not consider Italian O&G plants being decommissioned or of marginal impact. In addition, the figures do not take account of consumption and generation for cogeneration relating to Russian thermal generation plants. Average efficiency is calculated on the basis of the plant fleet and is weighted by generation.
The Group’s ambition for leadership in the fight against climate change was further strengthened in 2019: the target for the reduction of direct emissions from generation by 2020, which was set in 2015 at 350 g/kWheq of CO2 with a 25% reduction compared with 2007, was achieved one year early. In fact, 2019 closed with a reduction of 20% compared with the base year, to 296 g/kWheq of CO2 . In addition, in 2019 direct emissions of CO2 equivalent (Scope 1) amounted to around 70 million tons equivalent, a decrease of 27% on 2018. The reduction is attributable to a decline in thermal generation and the concomitant increase in generation from renewables, which raised the proportion of electricity generated with zero-emissions sourced to 54.9% of total consolidated output in 2019 (a significant increase on the 49.1% registered in 2018).
Specific atmospheric emissions of SO2 and NOX also declined by about 21% and 17% respectively compared with 2018, as confirmed by emissions of particulates, which declined further due to a reduction in generation from coal during 2019.
Responsible water resource management
Water is an essential part of electricity generation, and Enel therefore believes that the availability of this resource is a critical part of future energy scenarios. The Group has always managed the water we use efficiently through ongoing monitoring of all power plants located in areas threatened by water scarcity. Enel employs the following levels of analysis:
- the mapping of generation sites in areas at risk of water scarcity, i.e. where the average availability of per capita water resources is below the benchmark level set by the FAO (the mapping is performed using the Global Water Tool of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development);
- the identification of “critical” generation sites, i.e. those in water scarcity areas drawing on fresh water;
- more efficient management of water resources in order to maximize the use of waste water and sea water.
About 8% of the Enel Group’s total electricity output uses fresh water in water-stressed areas. In 2019 the total water requirement was 77.3 million cubic meters, some 20% less than in 2018, reflecting a decrease in thermal generation compared with the previous year. The specific requirement for 2019 was 0.33 l/kWheq, 13% less than in 2018.
Preserving biodiversity is one of the strategic objectives of Enel’s environmental policy. The Group promotes specific projects in the various areas in which we operate in order to help protect local species, their natural habitats, and the local ecosystems in general. These projects cover a vast range of areas, including: inventory and monitoring; programs to protect specific species; methodological research and other studies; repopulation and reforestation; and the construction of infrastructure supports to promote the presence and activities of various species (e.g. artificial nests along power distribution lines for birds or fish ladders at hydroelectric plants).